Monero: the secure, private, untraceable cryptocurrency. https://github.com/monero-project/monero
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README.md

Monero

Copyright © 2014-2018 The Monero Project.
Portions Copyright © 2012-2013 The Cryptonote developers.

Development resources

Vulnerability response

Research

The Monero Research Lab is an open forum where the community coordinates research into Monero cryptography, protocols, fungibility, analysis, and more. We welcome collaboration and contributions from outside researchers! Because not all Lab work and publications are distributed as traditional preprints or articles, they may be easy to miss if you are conducting literature reviews for your own Monero research. You are encouraged to get in touch with our researchers if you have questions, wish to collaborate, or would like guidance to help avoid unnecessarily duplicating earlier or known work.

Our researchers are available on IRC in #monero-research-lab on Freenode or by email:

Announcements

  • You can subscribe to an announcement listserv to get critical announcements from the Monero core team. The announcement list can be very helpful for knowing when software updates are needed.

Translations

The CLI wallet is available in different languages. If you want to help translate it, see our self-hosted localization platform, Pootle, on translate.getmonero.org. Every translation must be uploaded on the platform, pull requests directly editing the code in this repository will be closed. If you need help with Pootle, you can find a guide with screenshots here.  

If you need help/support/info about translations, contact the localization workgroup. You can find the complete list of contacts on the repository of the workgroup: monero-translations.

Build

IMPORTANT

These builds are of the master branch, which is used for active development and can be either unstable or incompatible with release software. Please compile release branches.

Operating System Processor Status
Ubuntu 16.04 i686 Ubuntu 16.04 i686
Ubuntu 16.04 amd64 Ubuntu 16.04 amd64
Ubuntu 16.04 armv7 Ubuntu 16.04 armv7
Debian Stable armv8 Debian armv8
macOS 10.11 amd64 macOS 10.11 amd64
macOS 10.12 amd64 macOS 10.12 amd64
macOS 10.13 amd64 macOS 10.13 amd64
FreeBSD 11 amd64 FreeBSD 11 amd64
DragonFly BSD 4.6 amd64 DragonFly BSD amd64
Windows (MSYS2/MinGW) i686 Windows (MSYS2/MinGW) i686
Windows (MSYS2/MinGW) amd64 Windows (MSYS2/MinGW) amd64

Coverage

Type Status
Coverity Coverity Status
Coveralls Coveralls Status
License License

Introduction

Monero is a private, secure, untraceable, decentralised digital currency. You are your bank, you control your funds, and nobody can trace your transfers unless you allow them to do so.

Privacy: Monero uses a cryptographically sound system to allow you to send and receive funds without your transactions being easily revealed on the blockchain (the ledger of transactions that everyone has). This ensures that your purchases, receipts, and all transfers remain absolutely private by default.

Security: Using the power of a distributed peer-to-peer consensus network, every transaction on the network is cryptographically secured. Individual wallets have a 25 word mnemonic seed that is only displayed once, and can be written down to backup the wallet. Wallet files are encrypted with a passphrase to ensure they are useless if stolen.

Untraceability: By taking advantage of ring signatures, a special property of a certain type of cryptography, Monero is able to ensure that transactions are not only untraceable, but have an optional measure of ambiguity that ensures that transactions cannot easily be tied back to an individual user or computer.

Decentralization: The utility of monero depends on its decentralised peer-to-peer consensus network - anyone should be able to run the monero software, validate the integrity of the blockchain, and participate in all aspects of the monero network using consumer-grade commodity hardware. Decentralization of the monero network is maintained by software development that minimizes the costs of running the monero software and inhibits the proliferation of specialized, non-commodity hardware.

About this project

This is the core implementation of Monero. It is open source and completely free to use without restrictions, except for those specified in the license agreement below. There are no restrictions on anyone creating an alternative implementation of Monero that uses the protocol and network in a compatible manner.

As with many development projects, the repository on Github is considered to be the “staging” area for the latest changes. Before changes are merged into that branch on the main repository, they are tested by individual developers in their own branches, submitted as a pull request, and then subsequently tested by contributors who focus on testing and code reviews. That having been said, the repository should be carefully considered before using it in a production environment, unless there is a patch in the repository for a particular show-stopping issue you are experiencing. It is generally a better idea to use a tagged release for stability.

Anyone is welcome to contribute to Monero’s codebase! If you have a fix or code change, feel free to submit it as a pull request directly to the “master” branch. In cases where the change is relatively small or does not affect other parts of the codebase it may be merged in immediately by any one of the collaborators. On the other hand, if the change is particularly large or complex, it is expected that it will be discussed at length either well in advance of the pull request being submitted, or even directly on the pull request.

Supporting the project

Monero is a 100% community-sponsored endeavor. If you want to join our efforts, the easiest thing you can do is support the project financially. Both Monero and Bitcoin donations can be made to donate.getmonero.org if using a client that supports the OpenAlias standard. Alternatively you can send XMR to the Monero donation address via the donate command (type help in the command-line wallet for details).

The Monero donation address is: 44AFFq5kSiGBoZ4NMDwYtN18obc8AemS33DBLWs3H7otXft3XjrpDtQGv7SqSsaBYBb98uNbr2VBBEt7f2wfn3RVGQBEP3A (viewkey: f359631075708155cc3d92a32b75a7d02a5dcf27756707b47a2b31b21c389501)

The Bitcoin donation address is: 1KTexdemPdxSBcG55heUuTjDRYqbC5ZL8H

Core development funding and/or some supporting services are also graciously provided by sponsors:

There are also several mining pools that kindly donate a portion of their fees, a list of them can be found on our Bitcointalk post.

License

See LICENSE.

Contributing

If you want to help out, see CONTRIBUTING for a set of guidelines.

Scheduled software upgrades

Monero uses a fixed-schedule software upgrade (hard fork) mechanism to implement new features. This means that users of Monero (end users and service providers) should run current versions and upgrade their software on a regular schedule. Software upgrades occur during the months of April and October. The required software for these upgrades will be available prior to the scheduled date. Please check the repository prior to this date for the proper Monero software version. Below is the historical schedule and the projected schedule for the next upgrade. Dates are provided in the format YYYY-MM-DD.

| Software upgrade block height | Date | Fork version | Minimum Monero version | Recommended Monero version | Details |
| ------------------------------ | -----------| ----------------- | ---------------------- | -------------------------- | ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- | | 1009827 | 2016-03-22 | v2 | v0.9.4 | v0.9.4 | Allow only >= ringsize 3, blocktime = 120 seconds, fee-free blocksize 60 kb | | 1141317 | 2016-09-21 | v3 | v0.9.4 | v0.10.0 | Splits coinbase into denominations | | 1220516 | 2017-01-05 | v4 | v0.10.1 | v0.10.2.1 | Allow normal and RingCT transactions | | 1288616 | 2017-04-15 | v5 | v0.10.3.0 | v0.10.3.1 | Adjusted minimum blocksize and fee algorithm | | 1400000 | 2017-09-16 | v6 | v0.11.0.0 | v0.11.0.0 | Allow only RingCT transactions, allow only >= ringsize 5 | | 1546000 | 2018-04-06 | v7 | v0.12.0.0 | v0.12.3.0 | Cryptonight variant 1, ringsize >= 7, sorted inputs | 1685555 | 2018-10-18 | v8 | v0.13.0.0 | v0.13.0.4 | max transaction size at half the penalty free block size, bulletproofs enabled, cryptonight variant 2, fixed ringsize 11 | 1686275 | 2018-10-19 | v9 | v0.13.0.0 | v0.13.0.4 | bulletproofs required | 1788000 | 2019-03-09 | v10 | v0.14.0.0 | v0.14.0.2 | New PoW based on Cryptonight-R, new block weight algorithm, slightly more efficient RingCT format | 1788720 | 2019-03-10 | v11 | v0.14.0.0 | v0.14.0.2 | forbid old RingCT transaction format | XXXXXXX | 2019-10-XX | XX | XXXXXXXXX | XXXXXXXXX | X

X’s indicate that these details have not been determined as of commit date.

Release staging schedule and protocol

Approximately three months prior to a scheduled software upgrade, a branch from Master will be created with the new release version tag. Pull requests that address bugs should then be made to both Master and the new release branch. Pull requests that require extensive review and testing (generally, optimizations and new features) should not be made to the release branch.

Compiling Monero from source

Dependencies

The following table summarizes the tools and libraries required to build. A few of the libraries are also included in this repository (marked as “Vendored”). By default, the build uses the library installed on the system, and ignores the vendored sources. However, if no library is found installed on the system, then the vendored source will be built and used. The vendored sources are also used for statically-linked builds because distribution packages often include only shared library binaries (.so) but not static library archives (.a).

Dep Min. version Vendored Debian/Ubuntu pkg Arch pkg Fedora Optional Purpose
GCC 4.7.3 NO build-essential base-devel gcc NO
CMake 3.5 NO cmake cmake cmake NO
pkg-config any NO pkg-config base-devel pkgconf NO
Boost 1.58 NO libboost-all-dev boost boost-devel NO C++ libraries
OpenSSL basically any NO libssl-dev openssl openssl-devel NO sha256 sum
libzmq 3.0.0 NO libzmq3-dev zeromq cppzmq-devel NO ZeroMQ library
OpenPGM ? NO libpgm-dev libpgm openpgm-devel NO For ZeroMQ
libnorm[2] ? NO libnorm-dev ` YES For ZeroMQ
libunbound 1.4.16 YES libunbound-dev unbound unbound-devel NO DNS resolver
libsodium ? NO libsodium-dev libsodium libsodium-devel NO cryptography
libunwind any NO libunwind8-dev libunwind libunwind-devel YES Stack traces
liblzma any NO liblzma-dev xz xz-devel YES For libunwind
libreadline 6.3.0 NO libreadline6-dev readline readline-devel YES Input editing
ldns 1.6.17 NO libldns-dev ldns ldns-devel YES SSL toolkit
expat 1.1 NO libexpat1-dev expat expat-devel YES XML parsing
GTest 1.5 YES libgtest-dev[1] gtest gtest-devel YES Test suite
Doxygen any NO doxygen doxygen doxygen YES Documentation
Graphviz any NO graphviz graphviz graphviz YES Documentation

[1] On Debian/Ubuntu libgtest-dev only includes sources and headers. You must build the library binary manually. This can be done with the following command sudo apt-get install libgtest-dev && cd /usr/src/gtest && sudo cmake . && sudo make && sudo mv libg* /usr/lib/ [2] libnorm-dev is needed if your zmq library was built with libnorm, and not needed otherwise

Install all dependencies at once on Debian/Ubuntu:


Install all dependencies at once on macOS:
``` brew update && brew install cmake pkg-config openssl boost hidapi zmq libpgm unbound libsodium miniupnpc readline ldns expat doxygen graphviz protobuf ```

FreeBSD one liner for required to build dependencies
```pkg install git gmake cmake pkgconf boost-libs cppzmq libsodium```

### Cloning the repository

Clone recursively to pull-in needed submodule(s):

`$ git clone --recursive https://github.com/monero-project/monero`

If you already have a repo cloned, initialize and update:

`$ cd monero && git submodule init && git submodule update`

### Build instructions

Monero uses the CMake build system and a top-level [Makefile](Makefile) that
invokes cmake commands as needed.

#### On Linux and macOS

* Install the dependencies
* Change to the root of the source code directory, change to the most recent release branch, and build:

        cd monero
        git checkout release-v0.14
        make

    *Optional*: If your machine has several cores and enough memory, enable
    parallel build by running `make -j<number of threads>` instead of `make`. For
    this to be worthwhile, the machine should have one core and about 2GB of RAM
    available per thread.

    *Note*: If cmake can not find zmq.hpp file on macOS, installing `zmq.hpp` from
    https://github.com/zeromq/cppzmq to `/usr/local/include` should fix that error.

    *Note*: The instructions above will compile the most stable release of the
    Monero software. If you would like to use and test the most recent software,
    use ```git checkout master```. The master branch may contain updates that are
    both unstable and incompatible with release software, though testing is always
    encouraged.

* The resulting executables can be found in `build/release/bin`

* Add `PATH="$PATH:$HOME/monero/build/release/bin"` to `.profile`

* Run Monero with `monerod --detach`

* **Optional**: build and run the test suite to verify the binaries:

        make release-test

    *NOTE*: `core_tests` test may take a few hours to complete.

* **Optional**: to build binaries suitable for debugging:

         make debug

* **Optional**: to build statically-linked binaries:

         make release-static

Dependencies need to be built with -fPIC. Static libraries usually aren't, so you may have to build them yourself with -fPIC. Refer to their documentation for how to build them.

* **Optional**: build documentation in `doc/html` (omit `HAVE_DOT=YES` if `graphviz` is not installed):

        HAVE_DOT=YES doxygen Doxyfile

#### On the Raspberry Pi

Tested on a Raspberry Pi Zero with a clean install of minimal Raspbian Stretch (2017-09-07 or later) from https://www.raspberrypi.org/downloads/raspbian/. If you are using Raspian Jessie, [please see note in the following section](#note-for-raspbian-jessie-users).

* `apt-get update && apt-get upgrade` to install all of the latest software

* Install the dependencies for Monero from the 'Debian' column in the table above.

* Increase the system swap size:
sudo /etc/init.d/dphys-swapfile stop  
sudo nano /etc/dphys-swapfile  
CONF_SWAPSIZE=2048
sudo /etc/init.d/dphys-swapfile start  
* If using an external hard disk without an external power supply, ensure it gets enough power to avoid hardware issues when syncing, by adding the line "max_usb_current=1" to /boot/config.txt

* Clone monero and checkout the most recent release version:
    git clone https://github.com/monero-project/monero.git
cd monero
git checkout tags/v0.14.1.0
* Build:
    make release
* Wait 4-6 hours

* The resulting executables can be found in `build/release/bin`

* Add `PATH="$PATH:$HOME/monero/build/release/bin"` to `.profile`

* Run Monero with `monerod --detach`

* You may wish to reduce the size of the swap file after the build has finished, and delete the boost directory from your home directory

#### *Note for Raspbian Jessie users:*

If you are using the older Raspbian Jessie image, compiling Monero is a bit more complicated. The version of Boost available in the Debian Jessie repositories is too old to use with Monero, and thus you must compile a newer version yourself. The following explains the extra steps, and has been tested on a Raspberry Pi 2 with a clean install of minimal Raspbian Jessie.

* As before, `apt-get update && apt-get upgrade` to install all of the latest software, and increase the system swap size

sudo /etc/init.d/dphys-swapfile stop  
sudo nano /etc/dphys-swapfile  
CONF_SWAPSIZE=2048  
sudo /etc/init.d/dphys-swapfile start  

* Then, install the dependencies for Monero except `libunwind` and `libboost-all-dev`

* Install the latest version of boost (this may first require invoking `apt-get remove --purge libboost*` to remove a previous version if you're not using a clean install):
cd  
wget https://sourceforge.net/projects/boost/files/boost/1.64.0/boost_1_64_0.tar.bz2  
tar xvfo boost_1_64_0.tar.bz2  
cd boost_1_64_0  
./bootstrap.sh  
sudo ./b2  
* Wait ~8 hours
sudo ./bjam cxxflags=-fPIC cflags=-fPIC -a install
* Wait ~4 hours

* From here, follow the [general Raspberry Pi instructions](#on-the-raspberry-pi) from the "Clone monero and checkout most recent release version" step.

#### On Windows:

Binaries for Windows are built on Windows using the MinGW toolchain within
[MSYS2 environment](https://www.msys2.org). The MSYS2 environment emulates a
POSIX system. The toolchain runs within the environment and *cross-compiles*
binaries that can run outside of the environment as a regular Windows
application.

**Preparing the build environment**

* Download and install the [MSYS2 installer](https://www.msys2.org), either the 64-bit or the 32-bit package, depending on your system.
* Open the MSYS shell via the `MSYS2 Shell` shortcut
* Update packages using pacman:  

        pacman -Syu  

* Exit the MSYS shell using Alt+F4  
* Edit the properties for the `MSYS2 Shell` shortcut changing "msys2_shell.bat" to "msys2_shell.cmd -mingw64" for 64-bit builds or "msys2_shell.cmd -mingw32" for 32-bit builds
* Restart MSYS shell via modified shortcut and update packages again using pacman:  

        pacman -Syu  


* Install dependencies:

    To build for 64-bit Windows:

        pacman -S mingw-w64-x86_64-toolchain make mingw-w64-x86_64-cmake mingw-w64-x86_64-boost mingw-w64-x86_64-openssl mingw-w64-x86_64-zeromq mingw-w64-x86_64-libsodium mingw-w64-x86_64-hidapi

    To build for 32-bit Windows:

        pacman -S mingw-w64-i686-toolchain make mingw-w64-i686-cmake mingw-w64-i686-boost mingw-w64-i686-openssl mingw-w64-i686-zeromq mingw-w64-i686-libsodium mingw-w64-i686-hidapi

* Open the MingW shell via `MinGW-w64-Win64 Shell` shortcut on 64-bit Windows
  or `MinGW-w64-Win64 Shell` shortcut on 32-bit Windows. Note that if you are
  running 64-bit Windows, you will have both 64-bit and 32-bit MinGW shells.

**Cloning**

* To git clone, run:

        git clone --recursive https://github.com/monero-project/monero.git

**Building**

* Change to the cloned directory, run:

        cd monero

* If you would like a specific [version/tag](https://github.com/monero-project/monero/tags), do a git checkout for that version. eg. 'v0.14.1.0'. If you don't care about the version and just want binaries from master, skip this step:
	
        git checkout v0.14.1.0

* If you are on a 64-bit system, run:

        make release-static-win64

* If you are on a 32-bit system, run:

        make release-static-win32

* The resulting executables can be found in `build/release/bin`

* **Optional**: to build Windows binaries suitable for debugging on a 64-bit system, run:

        make debug-static-win64

* **Optional**: to build Windows binaries suitable for debugging on a 32-bit system, run:

        make debug-static-win32

* The resulting executables can be found in `build/debug/bin`

### On FreeBSD:

The project can be built from scratch by following instructions for Linux above(but use `gmake` instead of `make`). If you are running monero in a jail you need to add the flag: `allow.sysvipc=1` to your jail configuration, otherwise lmdb will throw the error message: `Failed to open lmdb environment: Function not implemented`.

We expect to add Monero into the ports tree in the near future, which will aid in managing installations using ports or packages.

### On OpenBSD:

#### OpenBSD < 6.2

This has been tested on OpenBSD 5.8.

You will need to add a few packages to your system. `pkg_add db cmake gcc gcc-libs g++ gtest`.

The doxygen and graphviz packages are optional and require the xbase set.

The Boost package has a bug that will prevent librpc.a from building correctly. In order to fix this, you will have to Build boost yourself from scratch. Follow the directions here (under "Building Boost"):
https://github.com/bitcoin/bitcoin/blob/master/doc/build-openbsd.md

You will have to add the serialization, date_time, and regex modules to Boost when building as they are needed by Monero.

To build: `env CC=egcc CXX=eg++ CPP=ecpp DEVELOPER_LOCAL_TOOLS=1 BOOST_ROOT=/path/to/the/boost/you/built make release-static-64`

#### OpenBSD 6.2 and 6.3

You will need to add a few packages to your system. `pkg_add cmake zeromq libiconv`.

The doxygen and graphviz packages are optional and require the xbase set.


Build the Boost library using clang. This guide is derived from: https://github.com/bitcoin/bitcoin/blob/master/doc/build-openbsd.md

We assume you are compiling with a non-root user and you have `doas` enabled.

Note: do not use the boost package provided by OpenBSD, as we are installing boost to `/usr/local`.

Create boost building directory

mkdir ~/boost cd ~/boost

Fetch boost source

ftp -o boost_1_64_0.tar.bz2 https://netcologne.dl.sourceforge.net/project/boost/boost/1.64.0/boost_1_64_0.tar.bz2

MUST output: (SHA256) boost_1_64_0.tar.bz2: OK

echo “7bcc5caace97baa948931d712ea5f37038dbb1c5d89b43ad4def4ed7cb683332 boost_1_64_0.tar.bz2” | sha256 -c tar xfj boost_1_64_0.tar.bz2

Fetch and apply boost patches, required for OpenBSD

ftp -o boost_test_impl_execution_monitor_ipp.patch https://raw.githubusercontent.com/openbsd/ports/bee9e6df51/devel/boost/patches/patch-boost_test_impl_execution_monitor_ipp ftp -o boost_config_platform_bsd_hpp.patch https://raw.githubusercontent.com/openbsd/ports/90658284fb/devel/boost/patches/patch-boost_config_platform_bsd_hpp

MUST output: (SHA256) boost_config_platform_bsd_hpp.patch: OK

echo “1f5e59d1154f16ee1e0cc169395f30d5e7d22a5bd9f86358f738b0ccaea5e51d boost_config_platform_bsd_hpp.patch” | sha256 -c

MUST output: (SHA256) boost_test_impl_execution_monitor_ipp.patch: OK

echo “30cec182a1437d40c3e0bd9a866ab5ddc1400a56185b7e671bb3782634ed0206 boost_test_impl_execution_monitor_ipp.patch” | sha256 -c

cd boost_1_64_0 patch -p0 < ../boost_test_impl_execution_monitor_ipp.patch patch -p0 < ../boost_config_platform_bsd_hpp.patch

Start building boost

echo ‘using clang : : c++ : ”-fvisibility=hidden -fPIC” ”” “ar” “strip” “ranlib” ”” : ;’ > user-config.jam ./bootstrap.sh --without-icu --with-libraries=chrono,filesystem,program_options,system,thread,test,date_time,regex,serialization,locale --with-toolset=clang ./b2 toolset=clang cxxflags=“-stdlib=libc++” linkflags=“-stdlib=libc++” -sICONV_PATH=/usr/local doas ./b2 -d0 runtime-link=shared threadapi=pthread threading=multi link=static variant=release --layout=tagged --build-type=complete --user-config=user-config.jam -sNO_BZIP2=1 -sICONV_PATH=/usr/local --prefix=/usr/local install


Build the cppzmq bindings.

We assume you are compiling with a non-root user and you have `doas` enabled.

Create cppzmq building directory

mkdir ~/cppzmq cd ~/cppzmq

Fetch cppzmq source

ftp -o cppzmq-4.2.3.tar.gz https://github.com/zeromq/cppzmq/archive/v4.2.3.tar.gz

MUST output: (SHA256) cppzmq-4.2.3.tar.gz: OK

echo “3e6b57bf49115f4ae893b1ff7848ead7267013087dc7be1ab27636a97144d373 cppzmq-4.2.3.tar.gz” | sha256 -c tar xfz cppzmq-4.2.3.tar.gz

Start building cppzmq

cd cppzmq-4.2.3 mkdir build cd build cmake .. doas make install


Build monero: `env DEVELOPER_LOCAL_TOOLS=1 BOOST_ROOT=/usr/local make release-static`

#### OpenBSD >= 6.4

You will need to add a few packages to your system. `pkg_add cmake gmake zeromq cppzmq libiconv boost`.

The doxygen and graphviz packages are optional and require the xbase set.

Build monero: `env DEVELOPER_LOCAL_TOOLS=1 BOOST_ROOT=/usr/local gmake release-static`

Note: you may encounter the following error, when compiling the latest version of monero as a normal user:

LLVM ERROR: out of memory c++: error: unable to execute command: Abort trap (core dumped)


Then you need to increase the data ulimit size to 2GB and try again: `ulimit -d 2000000`

### On Solaris:

The default Solaris linker can't be used, you have to install GNU ld, then run cmake manually with the path to your copy of GNU ld:

        mkdir -p build/release
        cd build/release
        cmake -DCMAKE_LINKER=/path/to/ld -D CMAKE_BUILD_TYPE=Release ../..
        cd ../..

Then you can run make as usual.

### On Linux for Android (using docker):

        # Build image (for ARM 32-bit)
        docker build -f utils/build_scripts/android32.Dockerfile -t monero-android .
        # Build image (for ARM 64-bit)
        docker build -f utils/build_scripts/android64.Dockerfile -t monero-android .
        # Create container
        docker create -it --name monero-android monero-android bash
        # Get binaries
        docker cp monero-android:/src/build/release/bin .

### Building portable statically linked binaries

By default, in either dynamically or statically linked builds, binaries target the specific host processor on which the build happens and are not portable to other processors. Portable binaries can be built using the following targets:

* ```make release-static-linux-x86_64``` builds binaries on Linux on x86_64 portable across POSIX systems on x86_64 processors
* ```make release-static-linux-i686``` builds binaries on Linux on x86_64 or i686 portable across POSIX systems on i686 processors
* ```make release-static-linux-armv8``` builds binaries on Linux portable across POSIX systems on armv8 processors
* ```make release-static-linux-armv7``` builds binaries on Linux portable across POSIX systems on armv7 processors
* ```make release-static-linux-armv6``` builds binaries on Linux portable across POSIX systems on armv6 processors
* ```make release-static-win64``` builds binaries on 64-bit Windows portable across 64-bit Windows systems
* ```make release-static-win32``` builds binaries on 64-bit or 32-bit Windows portable across 32-bit Windows systems

### Cross Compiling

You can also cross-compile static binaries on Linux for Windows and macOS with the `depends` system.

* ```make depends target=x86_64-linux-gnu``` for 64-bit linux binaries.
* ```make depends target=x86_64-w64-mingw32``` for 64-bit windows binaries. Requires: python3 g++-mingw-w64-x86-64 wine1.6 bc
* ```make depends target=x86_64-apple-darwin11``` for macOS binaries. Requires: cmake imagemagick libcap-dev librsvg2-bin libz-dev libbz2-dev libtiff-tools python-dev
* ```make depends target=i686-linux-gnu``` for 32-bit linux binaries. Requires: g++-multilib bc
* ```make depends target=i686-w64-mingw32``` for 32-bit windows binaries. Requires: python3 g++-mingw-w64-i686
* ```make depends target=arm-linux-gnueabihf``` for armv7 binaries. Requires: g++-arm-linux-gnueabihf
* ```make depends target=aarch64-linux-gnu``` for armv8 binaries. Requires: g++-aarch64-linux-gnu

The required packages are the names for each toolchain on apt. Depending on your distro, they may have different names.

Using `depends` might also be easier to compile Monero on Windows than using MSYS. Activate Windows Subsystem for Linux (WSL) with a distro (for example Ubuntu), install the apt build-essentials and follow the `depends` steps as depicted above.

The produced binaries still link libc dynamically. If the binary is compiled on a current distribution, it might not run on an older distribution with an older installation of libc. Passing `-DBACKCOMPAT=ON` to cmake will make sure that the binary will run on systems having at least libc version 2.17.

## Installing Monero from a package

**DISCLAIMER: These packages are not part of this repository or maintained by this project's contributors, and as such, do not go through the same review process to ensure their trustworthiness and security.**

Packages are available for

* Ubuntu and [snap supported](https://snapcraft.io/docs/core/install) systems, via a community contributed build.

	snap install monero --beta

Installing a snap is very quick. Snaps are secure. They are isolated with all of their dependencies. Snaps also auto update when a new version is released.

* Arch Linux (via [AUR](https://aur.archlinux.org/)):
  - Stable release: [`monero`](https://aur.archlinux.org/packages/monero)
  - Bleeding edge: [`monero-git`](https://aur.archlinux.org/packages/monero-git)

* Void Linux:

        xbps-install -S monero

* GuixSD

        guix package -i monero

* Docker

        # Build using all available cores
        docker build -t monero .

        # or build using a specific number of cores (reduce RAM requirement)
        docker build --build-arg NPROC=1 -t monero .

        # either run in foreground
        docker run -it -v /monero/chain:/root/.bitmonero -v /monero/wallet:/wallet -p 18080:18080 monero

        # or in background
        docker run -it -d -v /monero/chain:/root/.bitmonero -v /monero/wallet:/wallet -p 18080:18080 monero

* The build needs 3 GB space.
* Wait one  hour or more

Packaging for your favorite distribution would be a welcome contribution!

## Running monerod

The build places the binary in `bin/` sub-directory within the build directory
from which cmake was invoked (repository root by default). To run in
foreground:

    ./bin/monerod

To list all available options, run `./bin/monerod --help`.  Options can be
specified either on the command line or in a configuration file passed by the
`--config-file` argument.  To specify an option in the configuration file, add
a line with the syntax `argumentname=value`, where `argumentname` is the name
of the argument without the leading dashes, for example `log-level=1`.

To run in background:

    ./bin/monerod --log-file monerod.log --detach

To run as a systemd service, copy
[monerod.service](utils/systemd/monerod.service) to `/etc/systemd/system/` and
[monerod.conf](utils/conf/monerod.conf) to `/etc/`. The [example
service](utils/systemd/monerod.service) assumes that the user `monero` exists
and its home is the data directory specified in the [example
config](utils/conf/monerod.conf).

If you're on Mac, you may need to add the `--max-concurrency 1` option to
monero-wallet-cli, and possibly monerod, if you get crashes refreshing.

## Internationalization

See [README.i18n.md](README.i18n.md).

## Using Tor

> There is a new, still experimental, [integration with Tor](ANONYMITY_NETWORKS.md). The
> feature allows connecting over IPv4 and Tor simulatenously - IPv4 is used for
> relaying blocks and relaying transactions received by peers whereas Tor is
> used solely for relaying transactions received over local RPC. This provides
> privacy and better protection against surrounding node (sybil) attacks.

While Monero isn't made to integrate with Tor, it can be used wrapped with torsocks, by
setting the following configuration parameters and environment variables:

* `--p2p-bind-ip 127.0.0.1` on the command line or `p2p-bind-ip=127.0.0.1` in
  monerod.conf to disable listening for connections on external interfaces.
* `--no-igd` on the command line or `no-igd=1` in monerod.conf to disable IGD
  (UPnP port forwarding negotiation), which is pointless with Tor.
* `DNS_PUBLIC=tcp` or `DNS_PUBLIC=tcp://x.x.x.x` where x.x.x.x is the IP of the
  desired DNS server, for DNS requests to go over TCP, so that they are routed
  through Tor. When IP is not specified, monerod uses the default list of
  servers defined in [src/common/dns_utils.cpp](src/common/dns_utils.cpp).
* `TORSOCKS_ALLOW_INBOUND=1` to tell torsocks to allow monerod to bind to interfaces
   to accept connections from the wallet. On some Linux systems, torsocks
   allows binding to localhost by default, so setting this variable is only
   necessary to allow binding to local LAN/VPN interfaces to allow wallets to
   connect from remote hosts. On other systems, it may be needed for local wallets
   as well.
* Do NOT pass `--detach` when running through torsocks with systemd, (see
  [utils/systemd/monerod.service](utils/systemd/monerod.service) for details).
* If you use the wallet with a Tor daemon via the loopback IP (eg, 127.0.0.1:9050),
  then use `--untrusted-daemon` unless it is your own hidden service.

Example command line to start monerod through Tor:

    DNS_PUBLIC=tcp torsocks monerod --p2p-bind-ip 127.0.0.1 --no-igd

### Using Tor on Tails

TAILS ships with a very restrictive set of firewall rules. Therefore, you need
to add a rule to allow this connection too, in addition to telling torsocks to
allow inbound connections. Full example:

    sudo iptables -I OUTPUT 2 -p tcp -d 127.0.0.1 -m tcp --dport 18081 -j ACCEPT
    DNS_PUBLIC=tcp torsocks ./monerod --p2p-bind-ip 127.0.0.1 --no-igd --rpc-bind-ip 127.0.0.1 \
        --data-dir /home/amnesia/Persistent/your/directory/to/the/blockchain

## Debugging

This section contains general instructions for debugging failed installs or problems encountered with Monero. First, ensure you are running the latest version built from the Github repo.

### Obtaining stack traces and core dumps on Unix systems

We generally use the tool `gdb` (GNU debugger) to provide stack trace functionality, and `ulimit` to provide core dumps in builds which crash or segfault.

* To use gdb in order to obtain a stack trace for a build that has stalled:

Run the build.

Once it stalls, enter the following command:

gdb /path/to/monerod pidof monerod ```

Type thread apply all bt within gdb in order to obtain the stack trace

  • If however the core dumps or segfaults:

Enter ulimit -c unlimited on the command line to enable unlimited filesizes for core dumps

Enter echo core | sudo tee /proc/sys/kernel/core_pattern to stop cores from being hijacked by other tools

Run the build.

When it terminates with an output along the lines of “Segmentation fault (core dumped)”, there should be a core dump file in the same directory as monerod. It may be named just core, or core.xxxx with numbers appended.

You can now analyse this core dump with gdb as follows:

gdb /path/to/monerod /path/to/dumpfile

Print the stack trace with bt

  • To run monero within gdb:

Type gdb /path/to/monerod

Pass command-line options with --args followed by the relevant arguments

Type run to run monerod

Analysing memory corruption

There are two tools available:

  • ASAN

Configure Monero with the -D SANITIZE=ON cmake flag, eg:

cd build/debug && cmake -D SANITIZE=ON -D CMAKE_BUILD_TYPE=Debug ../..

You can then run the monero tools normally. Performance will typically halve.

  • valgrind

Install valgrind and run as valgrind /path/to/monerod. It will be very slow.

LMDB

Instructions for debugging suspected blockchain corruption as per @HYC

There is an mdb_stat command in the LMDB source that can print statistics about the database but it’s not routinely built. This can be built with the following command:

cd ~/monero/external/db_drivers/liblmdb && make

The output of mdb_stat -ea <path to blockchain dir> will indicate inconsistencies in the blocks, block_heights and block_info table.

The output of mdb_dump -s blocks <path to blockchain dir> and mdb_dump -s block_info <path to blockchain dir> is useful for indicating whether blocks and block_info contain the same keys.

These records are dumped as hex data, where the first line is the key and the second line is the data.